Anglo-Saxons were only 24% English, study reveals

Anglo-Saxons were only 24% English, a new study has revealed.

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology conducted a genetic study to understand the extent, nature, and impact of human migration during the medieval period.

Their findings suggest that mass migration to the UK from GermanyThe Netherlands and Denmark during this period may have increased European ancestry as high as 76%.

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology conducted a genetic study to understand the extent, nature, and impact of human migration during the Anglo-Saxon period. Pictured: An ancient Anglo-Saxon tomb with pottery, brooches and a Roman spoon

Their findings suggest that the mass migration to the UK from Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark during this period may have increased European ancestry by up to 76%.

Their findings suggest that the mass migration to the UK from Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark during this period may have increased European ancestry by up to 76%.

Women of immigrant background were buried with artifacts

The study also showed that women of immigrant background were buried with artifacts – such as brooches and beads – more often than their local counterparts.

On the other hand, gunmen were just as likely to be of native or immigrant ancestry.

These differences have been mediated locally with prominent burials or rich graves seen across the range of origins.

For example, a woman buried with a complete cow in Cambridgeshire was genetically mixed, with majority local ancestry.

In the study, the team analyzed archaeological data and DNA from 460 medieval people dating from 200 to 1300 CE, including 278 people from England.

Their analysis found that 76% of the population in the east and south of England was made up of migrant families, whose ancestors came from the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark.

According to the researchers, these families interbred with the existing English population – although this varied by region and community.

Joscha Gretzinger, lead author of the study, said: “With 278 ancient genomes from England and hundreds more from Europe, we have now gained some truly fascinating insights into population scale and individual histories. in post-Roman times.

“Not only do we now have an idea of ​​the scale of the migration, but also of how it has played out in communities and families.”

The researchers compared data from medieval individuals to genetic data from more than 4,000 ancient and 10,000 present-day Europeans.

This revealed subtle genetic differences between closely related groups.

In one case, an Anglo-Saxon cemetery in Buckland near Dover enabled the international team to piece together a family tree spanning at least four generations.

Archaeologists excavate a complicated triple burial while working in Oakington Cambridgeshire.  These three women were unrelated to each other and each had a different proportion of WBI (Western Britain and Ireland) and CNE (Continental North European) ancestry.

Archaeologists excavate a complicated triple burial while working in Oakington Cambridgeshire. These three women were unrelated to each other and each had a different proportion of WBI (Western Britain and Ireland) and CNE (Continental North European) ancestry.

Funerary objects from burial grave 3532 in the cemetery of Issendorf.

Women of immigrant background were buried with artifacts more often than their local counterparts

The study also showed that women of immigrant background were buried with artifacts such as brooches and beads more often than their local counterparts.

They identified when migrants and locals got married. This family showed a high degree of interaction between the two gene pools.

Overall, researchers have witnessed prominent burials in cemeteries of local and migrant origin.

The study also showed that women of immigrant background were buried with artifacts such as brooches and beads more often than their local counterparts.

Archaeologists dig grave 112 in Oakington Cambridgeshire, it contained an adult male buried with a knife.  I had 99.99% CNE ancestry

Archaeologists dig grave 112 in Oakington Cambridgeshire, it contained an adult male buried with a knife. I had 99.99% CNE ancestry

On the other hand, gunmen were just as likely to be of native or immigrant ancestry.

These differences have been mediated locally with prominent burials or rich graves seen across the range of origins.

For example, a woman buried with a complete cow in Cambridgeshire was genetically mixed, with majority local ancestry.

Co-lead author Professor Duncan Sayer, University of Central Lancashire, said: ‘We are seeing considerable variation in how this migration has affected communities.

“In some places we see clear signs of active integration between locals and immigrants, as in the case of Buckland near Dover or Oakington in Cambridgeshire.

“Yet in other cases, like Apple Down in West Sussex, we see people of immigrant and local ancestry buried separately in the cemetery. Perhaps this is evidence of some degree of social separation on this site.

Today’s English derive only 40% of their DNA from these historic continental ancestors, while between 20 and 40% probably come from France or Belgium.

This genetic component can be seen in archaeological individuals and in graves with Frankish artefacts found in early medieval graves, especially in Kent.

Senior lead author Dr Stephan Schiffels, also from the Max Planck Institute, concluded: ‘It remains unclear whether this additional Iron Age ancestry in France is related to a few punctuated migratory events, such than the Norman Conquest, or whether it was the result of centuries-old mobility across the English Channel.

“Future work, specifically targeting the medieval period and later, will reveal the nature of this additional genetic signal.”

WHAT WAS BRITAIN LIKE IN THE 14TH CENTURY?

In the 14th century, Britain was in the depths of the Dark Ages.

Infant mortality was high, with up to a third of all children not surviving beyond the age of five due to illness, disease and poor medical knowledge.

Up to 20 percent of women die during childbirth or from postnatal infections.

If a person survived a risky childhood and lived in an era without war, the average life expectancy peaked at around 40-45 years.

House Plantagenet was the royal family that oversaw the entire century; of Charles III to the deposition of Richard II in 1399.

Mid-century, a four-year period between 1347 and 1351 saw one of the worst pandemics of all time – the Black Death.

It killed around 200 million people – between 30 and 60% of the total European population.

The Oriental rat flea was infected with the bacterium Yersinia pestis which spread the plague to the dirty streets and villages which were so popular at that time that hygiene and germs were not understood.

Along with one of the worst cases of disease in human history that killed millions, dozens perished from lack of food thanks to the Great Famine that lasted from 1315 to 1317.

Adverse weather conditions have led to appalling grain yields and caused a Europe-wide food shortage.

Famine caused millions of deaths and an increase in crime, cannibalism and infanticide during this time.

While childbirth, disease, pestilence or famine did not cause premature death, many people experienced their deaths more violently as conflict was commonplace.

The Hundred Years’ War (which lasted 116 years from 1337 to 1453) was a series of disputes between the kingdoms of England and France over the “legitimate” succession to the throne of France.

In 1381, working-class people fought back against wealthy rulers in the “Great Uprising” or “Peasants’ Revolt” in which 1,500 rebels died protesting poor living conditions and rising taxes.